Experienced sailors believed there was mainland beyond the ocean; however few mariners traveled beyond the major regions of commerce that are included on this map.The Western Caspian Sea (arrow) is indicated as a huge gulf that opens onto the ocean.
Roman victory at the culmination of the Punic Wars in 146 BC ended Phoenician dominance of trade on the Mediterranean Sea and across the Atlantic Ocean to Mexico.
This is an early representation of the Gulf of Mexico – where merchants obtained pineapples, corn, turkeys, pumpkins, chili peppers, gold, dyewood, tobacco, and other drugs.
They brought in exchange iron tools, hemp rope, wine, oil, and textiles.
Survivors of this conflict fled to the Eastern Seaboards of North America, Mexico, and South America.
Hecataeus World Map (c.500 BC) portrays the “Old World” (Europe, Africa, and Asia) surrounded by water.