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His description left no doubt among some historians that he was describing projectiles containing gunpowder.

In their history of rockets published on the internet NASA says “the Arabs adopted the rocket into their own arms inventory and, during the Seventh Crusade, used them against the French Army of King Louis IX “ e.

We shall revisit some Arabic sources that were known and repeatedly discussed since the middle of the nineteenth century, and shall add few more manuscripts and sources that were not discussed before. It was known under various names, was used as a flux in metallurgical operations and for producing nitric acid and aqua regia.

We shall analyse gunpowder composition for rockets and cannon as they are given in these manuscripts, and shall discuss briefly the development of cannon in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in the Mamluk Kingdom and in Muslim Spain. it was shown that Arabic alchemists knew potassium nitrate since the start of Arabic alchemy at the time of Khalid ibn Yazid (d. Recipes for these uses are found in the works of Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber, d.

815), Throughout the centuries potassium nitrates in Arabic was known by a variety of names, and the most important of these was natrun.

It was called also: buraq; al-shiha that is found at the feet of walls; milh al-ha’it (wall salt); flowers of asyus stone; salt of asyus stone; salt of stone; shura; shuraj; suraj; milh al-dabbaghin (tanners salt); shabb Yamani and lastly barud.

In some documented histories of warfare and weapons in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance there is a noticeable gap in the history of gunpowder and cannon in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

It is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract infections, and causes clinical symptoms from the mild common cold to life threatening respiratory diseases.Al-Rammah (d 695 AH/1295 AD) deals extensively in his book with gunpowder and its uses .The estimated date of writing this book is between 12.Lalanne believes that the Arabic jars of fire contained potassium nitrates.d- The seventh Crusade was directed against Egypt also.Louis IX led a well-prepared invasion and occupied Damietta in 1249.

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