One need not mention, of course, the fact of the emergence of the whole ‘Christian’ tradition itself – another response to this ‘ambiguous Prophecy''.Then, of course, there is the very term ‘Damascus’ itself – already alluded to above – the esoteric meaning of which I delineated in the whole final section of my New Testament Code (2006 – mentioned above and, in pirated form, I think available on Though one could go on and on in this vein, this is the kind of powerful ‘internal evidence’ (i.‘Damascus’ (this comes in Column VII and also in the quasi-dupicate material in the 2nd Document found at the end of the 19th Century in the Cairo Genizah and to some extent paralleled at Qumran – usually referred to as Columns XIX-XX – and perhaps the most important internal dating parameter of all).But this usage is also one expressly attributed to and expounded by James in his speech at the famous so-called ‘Jerusalem Council’ in Acts , which I elaborate in considerable detail particularly in my two books: James the Brother of Jesus (Penguin, 1998) and the whole second part of The New Testament Code (Watkins/Sterling, 2006).Related to these is ‘In a controversial reference in the Habakkuk Pesher – a Document which, together with what is called the Psalm 37 Pesher, definitively denotes the followers of ‘the Righteous Teacher’ as ‘the Poor,’ that is, we are definitely in the realm both of ‘the Ebionites’ and of ‘Ebionite’ literature – not only would both of these be ‘destroyed’ or ‘swallowed’ by ‘the Wicked Priest’; but, in turn, he would be made to ‘drink the Cup of the Wrath of God’ and ‘paid the Reward which he paid the Poor’ (i.e., ‘the Ebionim’)!Here ‘Again there is an allusion to the same theme in the Psalm 37 Pesher and, as opposed to the superficial analyses early on in Qumran Studies, the allusion has nothing whatever to do with the ‘drunkenness’ of ’ he might have been attending, except metaphorically (this, I explain, ad nauseum in all my books).These include references such as ‘making a Straight Way in the wilderness,’ alluded to twice in the Document called “” at Qumran and one of the first documents found there in Cave I; and, as is generally well known, associated with the teaching and coming of John the Baptist ‘in the wilderness’ in the Synoptic Gospels (that is Matthew, Mark, and luke – but not John).’ (i.e., the ‘New Covenant’).Equally important is the allusion to and exposition of Habakkuk 2:4, perhaps the climax of the Habakkuk Commentary (or, as we in the field call it, ''The Habakkuk Pesher'') and perhaps the central Scriptural building block of early Christian theology as set forth by Paul in Romans, Galatians, and Hebrews and, of course, in James.
Matthew –27 even goes so far in response to matters concerning the paying of ‘tribute’ (in this case, delineated in terms of paying the Temple tax) to actually portray Jesus as sending his favorite Apostle ‘Peter’ (also a Galilean ‘fisherman’) to the Sea of Galilee to retrieve the required coinage In addition, however, as just alluded to as well – but it is worth repeating – it is clear that what is being described in this pivotal section of the Habakkuk Pesher is the well-known Roman administrative practice of ‘tax-farming’, particularly among the petty Kings in the East (like the ''Herodians’, who functioned as Roman juridical and ‘tax-gathering’ officials – in the Gospels, that is, ‘Once again, these petty or Eastern Kings were specifically referred to in Roman juridical language as ‘Kings of the Peoples’ – of which such ‘Herodians’ were prototypical.
It has been my position from the beginning of my work (the 70''s), in a situation of the kind represented by the materials and discoveries at Qumran, when there is a contradiction between the results of techniques such as these and ‘the Internal Data’ – meaning, what the documents themselves say, which is what my books generally focus on – then ‘the internal data’ must take precedence, given the quality, imprecision, and kind of ‘the external data’ that exists for Qumran.
While many might be familiar with the latter – what, for instance, might be considered ‘internal data’ where the Scrolls are concerned?
There are two kinds of data for materials such as those found at Qumran (the Dead Sea Scrolls), ‘external’ and ‘internal.’ ‘External data’ consist of things like archaeology, paleography, and carbon dating.
In a situation like of the Scrolls, the latter turn out to often be either imprecise or unreliable.