The earliest pottery ever found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago (6000 BC).
The pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture.
The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, and the 5,570 municipalities.
Brazil's economy is the world's eighth-largest by both nominal GDP and GDP (PPP) as of 2017 Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the CPLP.
In this era other European powers tried to colonize parts of Brazil, in incursions that the Portuguese had to fight, notably the French in Rio during the 1560s, in Maranhão during the 1610s, and the Dutch in Bahia and Pernambuco, during the Dutch–Portuguese War, after the end of Iberian Union.
The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: to keep under control and eradicate all forms of slave rebellion and resistance, such as the Quilombo of Palmares, and its National Bank, additionally ending the Portuguese monopoly on Brazilian trade and opening Brazil to other nations.
The Marajoara culture flourish between 800 CE and 1400 CE; they developed sophisticated pottery, social stratification, supported large populations, mound building, and complex social formations such as chiefdoms.
The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état.as a result of the British Aberdeen Act, but only in May 1888 after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country, was the institution formally abolished.The foreign affairs in the monarchy were basically related issues with the countries of the Southern Cone with which Brazil has borders.Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization effectively began in 1534, when King Dom João III of Portugal divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil.However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil, a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America.